In my previews, I get a lot of questions on whether I teach options. Apparently, the number of advertisement bombardments from investment instructors has created this impression that you need derivatives to have a comfortable retirement. 
I don’t teach options, I consider financial engineered products optional (pun alert!) in retirement planning. But I see a lot of value in understanding optionality in your life. A lot of educational qualifications may be better positioned as a call option on your human capital rather than straight-forward equity bet. 
The above image is reproduced from summation.net. It discusses the spectrum by how much people value optionality in their lives and I agree with it whole-heartedly.
If you examine young undergraduates, there will always be two kinds of students. 
The first category of students knows what they want from a young age. They are aware of which degrees

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